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You are here: Home Our Projects Biosensitive Futures Part 5: Social Change Built environment Biosensitive cities

Biosensitive cities

Planning for biosensitive cities - a checklist of essential objectives

Energy use and electricity generation

  • To minimise use of energy generally (increasing energy efficiency etc.)
  • To minimise use of fossil fuels as a source of energy
  • To minimise use of fossil fuels in generation electricity
  • To greatly increase the use of clean renewable energy


Gaseous emissions

  • To minimise the release of carbon dioxide
  • To minimise the release of CFCs and other compounds that destroy the ozone layer in the stratosphere
  • To minimise release of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbon particles and tobacco smoke etc. that adversely affect human and ecosystem health



  • To ensure a supply of clean water (no pathogenic micro-organisms, pharmaceutical agents etc.)
  • To minimise the use of water
  • To maximise the recycling of water


Waste disposal

  • To maximise recycling
  • To minimise solid waste
  • To ensure recycling of nutrients in organic waste
  • To ensure effective public sanitation



  • To encourage walking, running, cycling
  • To minimise number of cars on the roads
  • To maximise the use of public transport
  • To encourage transportation of people and freight by rail
  • To encourage the use of low-energy, non-polluting vehicles



  • To minimise noise levels in public places


Built environment

  • To design buildings to minimise use of energy
  • To design new urban areas so that houses are oriented to make best use of solar energy
  • To ensure houses provide adequate protection from extremes of weather
  • To design buildings and streets to ensure maximum local surveillance
  • To design the built environment to encourage convivial social interaction
  • To provide local activity centres that encourage community interaction, involvement in biosensitive activities and enrichment of the local social environment
  • To provide recreational facilities for all age groups
  • To design the built environment and parkland to encourage walking, running and cycling
  • To design the built environment and parkland to be aesthetically pleasing


Green areas

  • To maximise photosynthesis within the urban system
  • To maximise local food production
  • To plan for plenty of parkland and greenery
  • To maximise local (urban) biodiversity